Epilepsy Leamington - Epilepsy is an ancient Greek word which literally means "seizure." This common neurological disorder is typified by seizures which are generally indications or transient signs of excessive, abnormal or hyper-synchronous neuronal activity within the brain. Epilepsy usually takes place in young kids or those people who are over the age of 65, however, it could occur at whichever time. Throughout the globe, more than fifty million individuals have epilepsy. Approximately 2 out of every 3 cases are discovered in developing countries. Epileptic seizures can even result as a consequence of brain surgery and individuals recovering from such surgical procedure can experience them.
The condition of epilepsy is normally controlled with medication, even though it is not treated in this manner. Even on the best medications, over 30% of patients with epilepsy do not have seizure control. In several situations, a surgical procedure could be considered difficult. In lots of cases, not all epilepsy syndromes are considered lifelong. Some kinds are confined to certain phases of childhood.
Epilepsy must not be considered as a single disorder, but instead as a syndrome with variously divergent signs which all involve episodic abnormal electrical activity within the brain. Seizure types are organized firstly according to whether the source of the seizure is localized as in focal or partial onset seizures or whether they are more distributed or generalized seizures.
Partial seizures are then further divided on the extent to which area of the consciousness is affected. Like for example, if it is unaffected, then it is considered a simple partial seizure, whereas otherwise, it is known as a complex psychomotor or complex partial seizure. Secondary generalization is the term when a partial seizure can spread in the brain. Generalized seizures include loss of consciousness and are divided according to the effect on the body. These include atonic, grand mal or tonic clonic, clonic or tonic, myoclonic or petit mal seizures.
Every so often kids can exhibit certain behaviours that are easily mistaken for epileptic seizures that are not really caused by epilepsy. These behaviours include: inattentive staring, benign shudders, self gratification behaviours including rocking and nodding, head banging, conversion disorder, which is jerking and flailing of the head normally in response to intense personal stress as such would incur in a case of physical abuse. Conversion disorder could be distinguished from epilepsy because the episodes do not comprise self-injury, incontinence or occur during sleep.
Just as there are kinds of seizures, there are lots of different kinds of epilepsy syndromes. The classifications include facts about the patient and about the episodes, in addition to the seizure kind. It likewise includes clinical features and likely causes such as behaviour during the seizure.
There are more than 40 different kinds of epilepsy consisting of: frontal lobe epilepsy, Landau-Kleffner syndrome, juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, childhood absence epilepsy, LennoxGastaut syndrome, infantile spasms, status epilepticus, limbic epilepsy, Rett syndrome, abdominal epilepsy, temporal lobe epilepsy, limbic epilepsy, photosensitive epilepsy, Jacksonian seizure disorder, and Lafora disease, amongst others.
Every different epilepsy kind presents with its own EEG findings, normal age of onset, unique combination of seizure type, own kinds of prognosis and treatment. The most common classification of the different types of epilepsies divides epilepsy syndromes by distribution of seizures and by location. This is determined by how the seizures appear, by cause and by EEG. Syndromes are divided into epilepsies of unknown localization, generalized epilepsies and localization-related epilepsies.
Normally localization-related epilepsies are referred to as focal or partial epilepsies. These types arise from an epileptic focus, a tiny portion of the brain which serves as the irritant driving the epileptic response. In contrast, generalized epilepsies arise from many independent foci and are known as multifocal epilepsies. These can comprise epileptic circuits which affect the entire brain. At this time it has not been determined whether epilepsies of unknown localization happen from a portion of the brain or from more widespread circuits.
Click to Download the pdf