Leamington Medical Clinics - The medical term "Respiratory Disease" includes various pathological conditions affecting the organs and tissues that make gas exchange possible. Respiratory disease consists of conditions of the bronchi, upper respiratory tract, trachea, bronchioles, pleural cavity, alveoli, pleura in addition to the nerves and muscles responsible for breathing. Respiratory diseases range from self-limiting and mild like the common cold for example, to life-threatening conditions like for instance pulmonary embolism, bacterial pneumonia and lung cancer.
The study of Pulmonology focuses on respiratory diseases, whilst those specializing doctors in this particular field are known as a pulmonologist. Medical practitioners in this particular area can likewise be called: a respiratory medicine specialist, a thoracic medicine specialist, a chest medicine expert and a respirologist.
Respiratory diseases can be classified in a variety of different ways; either by the organ or tissue involved or by the type and pattern of associated signs and symptoms, or by the cause of the disease or etiology.
Inflammatory Lung Disease
Inflammatory Lung Disease is characterized by a high neutrophil count. Some examples comprise: emphysema, acute respiratory distress syndrome, cystic fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder.
Allergic responses are a common cause of acute respiratory disease. This is because of the exposure to different foods and agents. Common allergens which are found in foods may consist of lemon, radish, sea foods such as some fatty fish and prawns, peanuts, bananas, dairy and ice creams, pomegranates, lemon, arrowroot, berries and lady's finger. Weather conditions may likewise affect various people because dusty and sandy weather conditions during summertime may make the quality of air poor for those who are sensitive.
Obstructive Lung Diseases
This grouping of diseases pertain to problems of the airways including the bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli. They become reduced in volume or else that have impeded the free flow of gas, making it more difficult to move air in and out of the lungs.
COPD or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
COPD's like for example asthma and different obstructive lung diseases, the airways have become damaged and allow them to narrow.
Restrictive Lung Diseases or Interstitial Lung Diseases
Restrictive Lung Diseases are a category of respiratory disease that is characterized by a loss of lung compliance. These RLD's could cause incomplete lung expansion and increased lung stiffness. IRDS or Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome is an instance.
Respiratory Tract Infections
Infections can affect whatever part of the respiratory system. They are traditionally divided into lower respiratory tract infections and upper respiratory tract infections.
Upper Respiratory Tract Infection
The common cold is the most common type of upper respiratory infection. Infections of particular organs found within the upper respiratory tract like for example pharyngitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis, laryngitis and otitis media are also in this category.
Lower Respiratory Tract Infection
Pneumonia is the most common lower respiratory tract infection. It is a lung infection usually as a result of bacteria, normally Streptococcus in the Western world. Tuberculosis is a large cause of pneumonia all over the globe. Various viruses and fungi can result in pneumonia too, like for instance pneumocystis pneumonia and acute respiratory syndrome.
Tumors in the respiratory system are either malignant or benign.
Pleural Cavity Diseases
Diseases of the pleural cavity comprises emphysema and mesothelioma. A collection of fluid in the pleural cavity is referred to as a pleural effusion. This can be due to conditions like for instance cirrhosis and congestive heart failure, as the fluid from the bloodstream shifts into the pleural cavity. Diseases here may also happen from pleura inflammation, TB, mesothelioma, pulmonary embolism and other conditions.
A hole in the pleura which covers the lung and permits air inside the lung to escape into the pleural cavity is referred to as a pneumothorax. In this instance, the affected lung collapses similar to a balloon that is inflated. A tension pneumothorax is a severe form of this where the air is unable to escape in the pleural cavity and the pressure eventually gets bigger compressing the blood vessels and the heart, leading to a dangerous life-threatening situation.
Pulmonary Vascular Diseases
Conditions which affect the pulmonary flow are known as Pulmonary Vascular Diseases. Some instances consist of: Pulmonary hemorrhage, Pulmonary arterial hypertension, Pulmonary embolism and Pulmponary edema.
Click to Download the pdf