Allergy Testing Leamington - The term asthma comes from the Greek language and means "panting." It is a chronic inflammatory sickness of the airways. Asthma is characterized by variable and recurring indications, including reversible airflow obstruction and bronchospasm. Indications of asthma consist of: chest tightness, wheezing, coughing and shortness of breath. Asthma is clinically classified depending upon the frequency of indications, peak expiratory flow rate and forced expiratory volume in one second. Asthma could be further categorized as atopic or extrinsic or intrinsic or non-atopic.
Asthma is believed to be triggered by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Treatment of acute indications is normally by using an inhaled short-acting beta-2 agonist, like for example salbutamol. Individuals who have asthma try to avoid triggers comprising allergens and irritants. Those who have asthma usually find relief by inhaling corticosteroids. Treatments using Leukotriene antagonists are less useful compared to corticosteroids are usually less favored.
Usually, a diagnosis is made based upon the pattern of symptoms in addition to the response to therapy over time. Ever since the 1970s, there has been a considerable increase in asthma. Based on statistics of 2010, all around the world, more than three hundred million people are affected worldwide and 250,000 asthma fatalities were recorded in the year 2009. The prognosis for asthma is generally good due to the ability to proper handle this condition with therapy.
Asthma is classified according to its seriousness in patients, the frequency of signs, if the indications happen during nighttime, FEV1 variability and predicted percent of FEV1, how often and intermittent the attacks take place etc. The asthma may be considered mild persistent if the attacks occur less than twice per week and not daily. Like for example, if they happen 3 to 4 times a month. Another category will be moderate persistent. These attacks can occur once a week but not nightly. Daily attacks are considered to be severe persistent occurring usually 7 times in a week, perhaps several times a day.
Now, there is no concise way for categorizing different subgroups of asthma, even though the condition is classified based on seriousness as listed above. Cases of asthma respond to various treatments. There is still much research ongoing in order to find ways to identify subgroups and what treatments respond well.
Asthma is not considered part of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, even if it is a chronic obstructive condition. Bronchiectasis, emphysema and chronic bronchitis are examples of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease since this is irreversible. In asthma, the airway obstruction is reversible, however, if not treated, the chronic lung inflammation during asthma could become an irreversible obstruction due to airway remodeling. Asthma also affects the bronchi and not the alveoli as in emphysema.
Asthma attacks are typically defined as an acute asthma exacerbation. Symptoms of an asthma attack includes: wheezing, chest tightness and shortness of breath, though several individuals present mainly together with coughing. In various cases, are motion could be impaired so greatly that no wheezing is heard. During an attack, there may be a paradoxical pulse, which means a pulse that is stronger during exhalation and weaker during inhalation. The individual may have a blue tinge to their nails and skin resulting from lack of oxygen. Some neck muscles such as the scalene and sternocleidomastoid muscles may become more pronounced as the individual struggles for air.
In a mild exacerbation the peak expiratory flow rate or also known as PEFR is =200 L/min or =50% of the predicted best. Moderate is defined as between 80 and 200 L/min or twenty five percent and fifty percent of the predicted best whereas severe is defined as = 80 L/min or =25% of the predicted best.
Among top athletes, asthma may be induced by exercise. In the 1996 Summer Olympic Games in Atlanta, a survey of the athletes showed that 15 percent of athletes had asthma and 10 percent were on asthma medication. The most common sports which have a high occurrence of asthma consist of long-distance running, mountain biking and cycling. Weight-lifting and diving show a somewhat lower incidence. There has been evidence suggesting insufficient vitamin D levels are related with serious asthma attacks. Most commonly, asthma induced by exercise is treated effectively utilizing a short-acting beta2 agonist.
Lots of individuals have asthma as a result of things they are exposed to at their workplace. This is reported as occupational respiratory disease. The majority of cases of occupational asthma are not recognized or reported as such. The highest percentage of cases happened during fabricators and labourers, followed by professional and managerial specialists as well as individuals in technical, sales and administrative support jobs. Most of these cases of asthma were in the services and manufacturing businesses. Some reactive chemicals are usually associated with work-related asthma as well as things like for instance enzymes, animal proteins, natural rubber latex and flour. One research reported that 15 to 23 percent of new onset asthma cases that happened in adults are work related.
Asthma is caused by genetic and environmental factors. These issues influence how serious the asthma is as well as how it responds to medication. There have been studies showing connected sicknesses such as hay fever and eczema are connected. The strongest risk factor for developing asthma is a history of atopic disease. The more allergens one reacts to on a skin test, the higher the chances of them having asthma.
Much allergic asthma is connected with sensitivity to indoor allergens. In the West, our normal housing styles also allow greater exposure to indoor allergens. There have been mixed findings to the prevention studies aimed at the aggressive reduction of airborne allergens inside a home with infants. Like for example, strict dust mite restriction has reduced the chance of allergic sensitization to dust mites and somewhat lessens the chance of developing asthma until the age of 8. Although, similar researches with exposure to dog and cat allergies have shown that exposure during the first year of life was found to lessen the chance of allergic sensitization and of developing asthma later in life.
There have been studies in the United Kingdom and the United States exploring the link between the development of asthma and obesity. Various elements associated with obesity may play a part in the pathogenesis of asthma. For instance, because of a build-up of adipose or fatty tissue, a decreased respiratory function could arise. This could be partly because adipose tissue contributes to a pro-inflammatory state and this has been associated with non-eosinophilic asthma. Adult onset asthma has also been related with Churg-Strauss syndrome and periocular xanthogranulomas.
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